PhD student - Anvar-Alot - Kenya

PhD | University of Nairobi

2020 – 2023

Research Project

Assessment of the Impact of Floods on Availability of Essential Trace Elements in Soils, Selected Vegetables and Water Quality in Budalangi, Busia County.


Dr. Geoffrey O. Okeng’o – University of Nairobi

The research study was conducted in Budalangi, Busia County, Kenya, and explored the effects of frequent flooding on the availability of trace element in soils, water and vegetables. The Budalangi region is prone to flooding, impacting agriculture, contaminating water sources, and causing loss of property, human life, and animals. The research, carried out before (December 2021) and after (July 2022) flooding episodes, involved collecting 120 soil samples, 20 vegetables, and 20 water samples. Analyzing of trace element; Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in Soils and vegetables as well as Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and As was determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF).

Despite a decline in trace element concentrations (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) in soils post-flooding (1-15%), they remained within global limits suitable for agriculture. The
vegetables studied showed variation in trace element distribution; however, all concentrations were within global thresholds for human consumption, except for Cu, which exceeded limits. Notably, drinking water met standards outlined by KS EAS 12: 2014 and WHO 2011 Guidelines, with Hg and Pb levels below detection limits. The study underscores the need for systematic ecosystem monitoring, sustainable development, and additional flood mitigation measures in flood-prone regions like Budalangi.

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